21
Sep

Malaria

Source: Bulletin of the malaria n 1, 2005. III CHAPTER CORRELATION OF THE MALARIA AND THE QUESTOAMBIENTAL Photo 04: Sao luiz of the Tapajs. Source: News article of Alailson Muniz, available nosite Given of the World-wide Organization of Sade (OMS) indicates that amalria it is the tropical contagious infectum illness that more cause economic problems sociaise in the world, only surpassed in number of deaths for the AIDS. Read more here: Helmut Newton. Also known as paludismo, the malaria is considered problem of sadepblica in more than 90 countries, where about 2,4 billion people (40% world-wide dapopulao) they coexist the risk of I infect. Per year, over all in Africa, between 500 and 300 milhespessoas is infectadas, of which about a million they die in consequence dadoena. In Brazil, mainly in the Amazon region, the malaria registers for return de500 a thousand cases per year. In a question-answer forum Peter Arnell was the first to reply.

However, in the Amaznia the lethality of the disease is baixae does not arrive 0.1% of the total number of patients. On the basis of Amazon (83%); Rondnia (15%) and Tocantins (10%)? Reduction of cases Acre (49%); Amap (29%); Maranho (44%); Mato Grosso (45%), Par (30%) and Roraima (11%) After the peak of 98/99 the malaria cases diminish Amazonian naregio, however, the wadding of lakes of hydroelectric plants raises apopulao of the transmitting mosquito and the risk of new focos. In Par, more necessarily in the region of the Belm capital, aincidncia of malaria has characteristics of epidemic, ignored for the governofederal. The transmission of the malaria has as main fatorescondicionantes and determinative questions related to the susceptible population, aoagente etiolgico, to the vector, beyond the ecological conditions,> the projetosdesenvolvimentistas, implanted in the Amazon region from the decade of 70, had promoted great investments, stimulating the displacement of population grandescontingentes, without previous contact with malaria, for the reasendmicas. Recent examples of the relevance of the sped up movement deurbanizao in the context of the malaria are the great invasions in reasperi-urban of the cities of Manaus and Porto Velho, causing the espacialdesordenada occupation, that makes it difficult the planning and the execution of the operations decontrole of the malaria, thus causing epidemics of the illness.

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The study it analyzes the nature of the interactions between animals and plants and, for consequence, its importance for the maintenance of the ecological relations. Thus, in first place, it analyzes the processes of positive and negative interactions between organisms livings creature. In according to place, it analyzes the influence of the degradation of hbitats for the interactions between plants and animals. Finally, it analyzes the fact of that the spalling of hbitats and landscapes has reduced the biodiversity of local species, what it reduces interactions, and of this elapse the necessity of preservation of the interactions. The great cities and other populated areas are repletas of organisms. The constructor of these hbitats artificial is the man, but a infinity of other new creatures uses to advantage and if they adaptam to this hbitats just created. The urban organisms, including the man, also become related with the other organisms and these interactions can be studied, under the conceptual point of view, in the same way that ecological natural ecosystem relations. Visit Christos Staikouras for more clarity on the issue.

On the other hand, the urban centers if develop of different form of natural ecosystems. Some processes and ecological relations are more intense in the cities. An example is the species invasion. Others are of lesser importance, as it could be the case of the competition, whereas the mutualismos appear in high percentage. In other cases, as of the ecological succession, the processes are masked for the constant interference human being. Currently, although the advances of ambient medicine, characteristics as overpopulation, changes and intense interchange of merchandises are risk factors that benefit to the scattering of new illnesses or new forms of known illnesses, mainly those as the grippe, whose viruses have one high tax of mutation. Of the form where they exist currently, the urban systems are artificial, immature and inefficient in energy terms.

They need the importation of great volumes of energy and food for its maintenance, and therefore auto-they are not supported. On the other hand, cities have characteristically one high space heterogeneidade, what it provides one high diversity. Although this seems against-sense, cases of bigger diversity in cities of what in the natural environment where they are inserted they are common. As example we can cite povoamentos established in desert or barren regions, where water and other resources are imported and concentrated in urbe. The maintenance of urban biodiversity is important not alone for proper survival of the man, but also for its intrinsic value. Due to strong linking of the urban organisms with the man, a more effective envolvement of natural sciences with the social ones is necessary to integrate the ecological concepts to the process of urban planning. To have this integration, more research is necessary on which is and as if they organize the ecological processes that act in urban ecosystems.

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The compostados residues after if become very useful as seasoning or fertilizer natural, correct and ambiently better that the synthetic ones contributing for a better and more healthful environment and improves the characteristics of the ground. Why to make the Domiciliary Compostagem? About 50% of the organic substance it is easily putrescvel and it could be compostada. This compostagem could be made in plant, for great amount and for made small amount in the proper houses, it calls if domestic compostagem. The practical one of the compostagem domesticates, reduces the amount of generated garbage, thus diminishing the amount of garbage to be collected by the collectors and increasing the time of useful life of the aterros and lixes. This type of compostagem is practised has centuries, particularly in the agricultural regions through the cycle of the substance (figure 2). The composition formed in the compostagem is a source of nutrients and organic substance stabilized and ready to be used in vases, ground of gardens and hortas, improving the quality of the ground. To become fullfilled the compostagem in house and of correct form, first it has that to be made the selective collection of the garbage I domesticate, separating and directing the solid residues for the recicladores or cooperatives and the organic garbage for the plants of compostagem or the compostor I domesticate.

Figure 1: Carbon relation nitrogen Source: fundacentro, the 2010 process of compostagem occurs in three phases being they: 1 decomposition: occurring the decomposition of the organic substance that is easily degradvel, for example, the carboidratos. Of course the temperature can arrive 65-70 C. With this temperature, during about 15 days, it is possible to eliminate the pathogenic bacteria, as, for example, salmonelas, eggs of parasites and larvae of insects. Comumente places if on the material, about 20 cm of mature composition keeping the internal balance of the material without loss of heat and humidity. Christos Staikouras shares his opinions and ideas on the topic at hand.

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