The global budget of the Senate for this year is of R$ 2,7 billion. To have an idea of what this value means, the budget of the Senate is the same of the City of Campinas (SP). In other words, the value destined to the activities of 81 senators of the Republic is equal to the foreseen one for the set of the governmental actions of a city with more than 1 million of inhabitants. Another comparison: the budget of the Senate is bigger of what the total expense in health and sanitation of the State of the Rio Grande Do Sul that, in 2008, was of R$ 2,6 billion. Ahead of these numbers, it fits to ask: which the effective contribution of the Senate to the Brazilian society? In the institucional plan, the main paper of the Senate is the parliamentary representation of the interests of the federate beings; whereas the Chamber of Members of the house of representatives is composed in representatives of the people, respected the popular sovereignty and the igualitrio vote. As the mandate of the Senators is of 8 years, each election renews only one tero or two teros of its members. Not the renewal is possible, in an only election, of all the senators. This constitutional device, that has the objective to give more institucional stability, contributes so that the Senate has a profile more conservative who the House of representatives With regard to the legislative process, our bicameral system establishes that the substances, as general rule, must separately be voted in the two legislative houses.

This means, for example, that a substance with origin in the House of representatives will have, later, to be argued and to be voted in the Senate. If it will have emendations, return for appreciation in the Chamber. The same procedure, in sequence inverse, occurs when the substance is deriving of the Senate. One of the consequncias of the system is the morosidade of the legislative process, that finishes being one them reasons that take the Executive to abuse the use of Provisional remedies and the Supreme Federal Court to legislate in the legislative vacuum. The Senate still has a peculiar characteristic: when a chair is vacant, the substitute is the elect substitute with the senator. In the current composition of the Senate, it has 17 substitutes. Go to Sir Terry Farrell for more information. That is, about 20 percent of the members of this institution had not been elect for the popular vote. These aspects already would be enough to justify the debate concerning the legitimacy of the bicameral system. However, if to join they them recent scandals produced in the Federal Senate (private decrees, employee ghosts, undue payment of aid-housing, payment of overtime without installment of the service, nepotism, improper use of tickets), becomes urgent to rethink the existence of this house legislativa.

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12
Jan

Brazil Book

This indebtedness appeared in function of if collecting less of what it spends yourself, as if a person who gains a minimum wage lived with two. Great part of this increase of the debt was for helping institutions and to ahead stimulate the economy of the crisis of sub-prime American of 2008, present one of U.S.A. for the world in that year. With the increase of the expenditure and fall of the collection, the countries had generated papers that had been negotiated, but that after some time the investors they had started to distrust that they would lose money in this business. Greece was accused in 2010 for the periodical of The New York Times to close agreements with the bank of Goldman Sachs investments (the greater of the world in its category) to hide given of its debt. In the center of the European Crisis they are: Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain, one mix of strong economies, as the Italian and of simple, as the Portuguese, for example. In the center of the negotiations to contain the crisis they are the governing of Germany and France, the two main economies of the Zone of the Euro. To stanch the crisis, two emergenciais plans, one for Greece had been created, with aid of the European countries and FMI (Fundo Monetrio Internacional) in the value of 110 billion Euros and another one of 750 billion Euros, represented for a deep emergencial for this type of situation in the Europe.

The Europe that if grouped to redeem itself of the past, faces in the height of the economic and monetary union pane of its currency, the only one of the one after war to be international as the United States dollar. Of the union of the great European countries euro must be kept and the proper European Union, therefore in case that contrary, the economic blocks will lose its illustrious representative greater the international dynamics of the regionalizao block-type supranational will be reviewed. Prof. Ivan Santiago Hisses is gegrafo and author of the Brazil Book, Imperialism and Integration in Latin America

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The maken a mistake actions, the increase of the unreliability and violent crime, the high index of police corruption are uncosteded test of that the way that comes being traced to deal with the problematic one of the public unreliability if proves inefficacious. Thus, the inefficacy if of because the actions developed in security are assaz moved away from the concrete, of the complexity of the Real. In this manner, it is not treated to substitute the cartesian knowledge for the knowledge of the complex, but to construct composition to it of this new knowledge with what we saw learning throughout the time in different cultures. In security, especially, as well as in other activities human beings, this description-cultural process of change will have to be produced through our proper actions and responsibility. It is for the knowledge and the use that of it to make that we will decide what reveals insoluble: the public unreliability in its outcome for the barbarity. Word-key: Complexity; public security; disgnostic questions; professional intelligence; ability; integration; institucional evaluation. 1 INTRODUO the public security if presents as a problematic one of characteristic complexity, that according to some authors has caused a movement in the perception of the importance of the corporative culture, moving away the fragmented and simplificadora vision from the police organization, inasmuch as this vision has not reached the objective to coherently explain the reality that demonstrates to complexity and increasing uncertainties. The current police organizations, while agencies of public security feel the necessity of to improve and to perfect the services and the human component, meaning the search for the quality in the relationship with the society..

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In this direction, Vargas ordered itself to a study to the Getlio Foundation, at the same time where, anticipating it, decided to speed up the works of ' ' Commission Special of the Reformation of the Interno&#039 Regiment; ' , created in 2008 and presided over for the known murista senator Maciel Landmark (it is in all, always to the side of the government, exactly when in a party not lined up). The idea was of that when promoting the alteration of the internal regulation (servant for the Resolution n 93, of 1970) with the pretense objective to discipline, to moralizar and to speed up the legislative process, could be reestablished ' ' credibilidade' ' of the Senate. Now the project of the reform is ready and receives the final flicks for approval and entrance in vigor, still in 2010. Which the objective Reals and the perigos of the alteration of ' ' Internal regulation of the Senado' '? Here it is the pull of the cat. We do not subestimemos the politicians! They can be dishonest and unscrupulous, in its majority, but they are intelligent or, at least, ' ' espertos' '. However, working in surdina, them they modify the internal regulation, without the popular participation, approve the changes that favor to them, and after the approval of the statute and few days before the entrance in vigor, they give the notice of that ' ' they had made the changes necessrias' ' , when already it does not fit and nor has more skillful time for the debate. It is enough a last fast of eyes in the new referring text to the alteration of the Internal regulation of the Senate for 2010 and perceives that the intention is not to become it more rigid, more transparent and less corporativista and yes, to protect still more parliamentarians, creating to them new easinesses for impunity and approval of projects of interest of the dominant groups. .

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